Author Archives: publications

Root Beer!

The origin is referred to small beers that are local beverages. Some contained alcohol and some did not. Root beer was made during colonial times in America from herbs, roots, and barks. There are four different types of beers they used. They were birch beer, sarsparilla beer, ginger beer, and root beer. The first bottle of Root Beer was made by the Hires family in 1893, even though Root Beer can be traced way back into history. Another type or brand of root beer is A & W Root Beer. It was founded by Roy Allen, who was the man who started marketing Root Beer in 1919. He was partnered with Frank Wright and that’s how A&W gets its name. It is the number one selling Root Beer in the world. The original recipe for Root Beer was made by Native Americans and now there are over 100 recipes.


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Posted by on May 13, 2014 in News



Dolphins are found worldwide in shallow seas of continental shelves and are highly intelligent marine mammals. They are part of the toothed whales family and are carnivores. Dolphins mostly eat fish and squid. The color of dolphins change but the majority of them are gray with darker backs than the rest of the body. The Bottlenose dolphin is about 8 feet long and weighs about 440-660 pounds. There are over forty species of dolphins and since they are so diverse, dolphins range in size. The smallest dolphin is the Maui’s Dolphin which is 4 feet long and weighs about 90 pounds. They also live long lives that range between 40 to 80 years. The dolphins are known for their playful behavior which makes them the favorite of wildlife watchers. Mating season is throughout the year and it takes 9 to 17 months till birth. The most common is one calf and twins are rare. The calf can nurse from 11 months to 2 years. They also stay with their mothers till they are three years old.


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Posted by on May 1, 2014 in News



Gatorade was made on the playing field in the 1960s by researchers at the University of Florida to help football teams prevent dehydration when they play in the swamp-like heat. Gatorade has grown to become an essential part of the equipment of sports, and can be found on the sidelines, in the locker rooms, and on almost every field of play.  With more than 40 years of scientific research, Gatorade has proven rehydration and performance benefits over water. It is considered a thirst quencher and is formulated to replace fluids and provide energy to working muscles. The company of Gatorade was found in 1965 and is based in Chicago, Illinois. The Gatorade Company, Inc. operates as a subsidiary of Pepsico, Inc. There are over 30 flavors in the U.S and over 50 flavors internationally. Even though Gatorade is good to drink, it should only be drunk in small amounts because it can cause health consequences. Some consequences are weight gain, Vitamin Toxicity, Hyponatremia that effects runners, and High Blood Sugar. Gatorade is the number one drink for athletes today.
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Posted by on April 17, 2014 in News



The Prairie Tumbleweed, or the Russian thistle, was introduced into the United States in the last century hitchhiking in imported grains and the wool of imported sheep. Tumbleweeds started out on North America. There were no tumbleweeds in the old west and was accidentally introduced to South Dakota in 1877. Back then some ranchers encouraged its growth thinking it would be a feed source for livestock in more arid regions of the country, like in Southwest Kansas. That didn’t catch on, but the practice of using them in home decorations, unique Christmas Trees, and natural landscaping caught on here as well as throughout the country. The salsola pestifera is the most frequent of tumbleweeds. It naturalized from Asia and it is the troublesome one on Western prairies. Tumbleweeds break from their roots at maturity, then dry into a round tangle of light and stiff branches.


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Posted by on April 10, 2014 in News


The Electric Chair!

The electric chair was suggested in 1881 by Dr. Albert Southwick who was a dentist. When the electric chair was being developed it was a rivalry between two giant electrical services. Thomas Edison was working with the direct current that flowed one direction. Employees of Thomas Edison, another dentist, helped design the electric chair. George Westinghouse worked with the alternating current the reverses direction in a circuit at regular intervals. The chairs of the two rivalries were powered by a generator.

The device was invented after Dr. Albert Southwick witnessed an elderly man painlessly killed by touching terminals of an electrical generator. Before the electric chair was invented, hanging was the number one way of killing people on death penalty. The first person to be executed was William Kemmler who murdered his wife with an axe. The last time the electric chair was used was in 2010 against a man who strangled and killed two inmates. The electric chair was only used for its intended purpose.

The electric chair was invented at the Auburn Prison in New York. It was used in many different states across the U.S at the prisons including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Kentucky, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Virginia. The electric chair isn’t used anymore today.

The final product of the electric chair was finished in 1889. In 1889, the New York Electrical Execution law went into effect. Between the two rivalries, a committee had to choose Thomas Edison with the direct current or George Westinghouse with the alternating current. The committee decided on the alternating current because it was cheaper with the wires, worked faster, and was a lot less painful.

The development or creation of the electric chair hasn’t had an impact on my life because it was used in prisons. Also, it isn’t used in our world today. When this invention was still around I bet it did have an impact on other industries and people because you use to be able to watch someone get executed.



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Posted by on April 3, 2014 in News



Penguins are aquatic, flightless birds that live their life in water.  The blue penguin, also know was the fairy penguin is the smallest penguin out of all the species. It reaches to 16 inches tall and weighs about 2.2lbs. The largest penguin is the Emperor penguin. It reaches 3.7 feet and weights between 60-90 lbs. Their life span is 15-20 years depending on the species.They are found in the southern hemisphere, where they catch their food underwater and raise their young on land. Penguins eat krill, fish, and squid. Penguins closer to the equator eat more fish and penguins closer to Antarctica eat more squid and krill. The highest species of the penguin is the Macaroni penguin. The lowest population species of penguins is the endangered Galapagos with between 6,000-15,000 individuals. Penguins can spend up to 75% of their lives in water. They do all their hunting in the water. They catch their prey in their beaks and swallow them whole as they swim. Breeding seasons depends on the species, but most species breed during the spring and summer. King and emperor penguins lay one egg. Other species lay two eggs.


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Posted by on March 19, 2014 in News


The Panda Bear

The Panda Bear is a well recognized symbol of international wildlife conservation. Pandas have black fur on their ears, around their eyes, nose, legs and the shoulders. They are good tree climbers and swim to escape from predators. Pandas eat bamboo and they use an enlarged wrist bone that looks like a thumb to grasp the bamboo. On average the panda had to eat as much as 20-45 lbs of bamboo a day. They are also known to eat flowers, vines, corn, honey and rodents. Today there is an estimate of 2,000 pandas found in the wild. Pandas lived in both mountainous and lowland regions of western and southwestern China. They are now found only in the mountains of central China, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu. Pandas are found mostly in thick bamboo and coniferous forests at 8,500-11,500 feet in elevation. Unlike other bears, giant pandas do not hibernate. In the winter they move to lower elevations to keep warm. When the cubs are born they are born blind and helpless and if they are twins only one cub survives. They open their eyes at 6-8 weeks and starts to move their eyes at 3 months.


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Posted by on March 13, 2014 in News